Thursday, July 31, 2008

A Comparative Analysis of Liberia-China Relations

Thanks to Mr. Yengbeh, Jr. the discussion of the PRC's singular influence in Liberia has advanced a bit. People, we must ask ourselves, do we want the short term gain of five china rice bowls now or one a week for the next year from Liberia's own hand. (Article follows)

- - - -

How Public Perception Influences Foreign Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Liberia-China Relations
Modern Ghana News

A recent Pew Global Attitudes Survey indicates that "Across Africa, favorable views of China outnumber critical judgments by two-to-one or more in every country except South Africa, where opinion is divided. The survey provides a trend only for Nigeria, where favorable attitudes toward China are sharply up, rising 16 percentage points in just the past year from 59% to 75%."

The survey further suggests that "Across sub-Saharan Africa, China's influence is seen as growing faster than America's, and China is almost universally viewed as having a more beneficial impact on African countries than does the United States. Clear majorities say America's influence in their countries is generally good. But the perception that China has a positive impact is far more widespread."

In the International Herald Tribune Survey conducted in sixteen African countries, 76% of Africans hold positive attitudes toward the general image of China compared to 14% negative and 10% neutral.

In Liberia, public perceptions and attitudes toward China are generally favorable today. Liberia's domestic and foreign policies are based on the following four key pillars: enhancing national security, revitalizing the economy, strengthening governance and rule of law, and building infrastructure and basic services. The situation context of post-conflict Liberia has played a major role in terms of the strategies and tactics the government has employed to advance the country's domestic and foreign policy objectives.

But what is unclear is whether Liberia's foreign policy is informed by clear understanding of the complexities or intricacies involved in the international environment of the 21st Century. Of particular importance is that there is no grand strategy. The process of formulating, implementing and evaluating the policy of a grand strategy is beyond the scope of this article. As a practical matter, it is an effective grand strategy, coupled with a bold, long-term vision, reason and principle that will determine the destiny of peace, security and prosperity in Liberia. Moreover, the vital role of foreign policy leadership will also be crucial in the balancing art or balance of power relations between America and China, which will be paramount for the promotion of global stability in this century. This would also require the consistency and continuity of foreign policy for the foreseeable future.

In the field of international relations, each country is freed to advance its national interests. Of great significance is the fact that the current Liberian government is pursuing her own interests through an economic and development diplomacy aimed at securing much-needed strategic partnerships in support of Liberia's post-war reconstruction and development initiatives. While it is too early to predict precisely whether Chinese long-term engagement in Liberia will produce a positive influence, the recent impact of China is highly visible in infrastructure investments and development projects such as building roads, hospitals, schools, agriculture, and timber industry among others. China has agreed to rebuild the University of Liberia Fandell Campus, which was destroyed during the civil war. Chinese peacekeepers served in the 15,000-strong United Nations Mission in Liberia. All of these projects create opportunities for the Liberian government to fulfill the hopes and aspirations of a better life for the people. Therefore, the government and people hold positive perceptions and attitudes toward China. However, this belief is based on a false sense of so-called Chinese humanitarian aid and philanthropy.

A close-up examination of Liberia-China relations reveals a different but more realistic image based on a foreign policy perspective. The rapid growing Chinese presence in Liberia has much more to do with China exerting a unique combination of geopolitics, diplomacy, national security and business interests rather than humanitarian aid and philanthropy.

Over the past three or more decades, various Liberian governments have been aligned with either mainland China or the Taiwan Strait. President William R. Tolbert had established one China policy. President Samuel K. Doe continued close relations with China. Doe recognized the relevance of such strategic partnership and seized the opportunity for the implementation of the Tolbert doctrine by using the Chinese government to build the SKD Sports Stadium in Monrovia. President Charles Taylor switched ties to Taiwan. Taylor too realized that Taiwan could help by renovating a section of the John F. Kennedy Hospital. Charles Gyude Bryant, Chairman of the National Transitional Government of Liberia, went back to China. Edwin Snowe, former speaker of the Liberian Legislature, who was loyal to the Taylor regime, met secretly with the Taiwanese government officials in the Gambia. This caused a forceful storm of disapprovals and negative reactions because many Liberians at home and abroad felt that his unilateral action undermined Liberia's foreign policy. In February 2007, President Hu Jintao of China cancelled Liberia's debt of 15 million dollars during a state visit. President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf reciprocated in-kind by signing a joint agreement reaffirming Liberia's commitment to the one China policy.

Furthermore, the effectiveness of the one China policy has been that Liberia supports China's national reunification, while Liberia will not support Taiwan on major foreign policy issues such as declaration of independence and the proposed referendum of United Nations membership. China views Taiwan as an integral part of its territory, which means that such events would be considered provocative. China is happy to remain in Liberia as long as Taiwan is out. China sees a small window of opportunity to consolidate its influence and project its power. In principle, the fundamental implication is that China advances its geopolitical and national security interests.

On the one hand, China is further interested in Liberia to feed its growing need for energy and natural resources. Liberia's vast natural resources will fuel Chinese economic growth. For example, Chinese companies have been working in the Liberian logging industry, construction, telecommunications sector and are now prospecting for the mining sector. Moreover, the Liberian government is working hard to secure their mutual economic interests. Today, some Liberian political and economic elites even believe that America and, perhaps, other Western allies cannot force them into deals they don't want or cannot afford. In their view, China is not only a credible and willing international partner but also a strategic option for Liberia.

On the other hand, the Liberian market is relatively small in comparison to many African markets. Ordinary Liberians feel that Chinese-made commodities are not durable. Indeed, Liberians believe that Chinese made products for the American market are far better than those made for African markets. Liberians prefer American products

Liberian consumers, workers and small businesses are worried about the economy. People are specifically concerned about the high costs of living, taxes, food crisis, transportation vis-à-vis gas prices, housing, and education for their children. Meanwhile, Liberians appear to be taking a wait and see attitude at this time. Because of the present severe economic conditions and mass poverty, negative feelings may not be isolated only to Lebanese and Indian business communities. In turn, these foreign business people, who have enjoyed a much longer commercial experience within the economy, are now feeling the squeeze and carefully studying the situation. Negative feelings will likely rise if government failure creates a self-fulfilling prophecy due to high unemployment, high inflation, costs of living, depreciation of real value of Liberian dollar, and economic depression. The general security situation is also declining at an alarming rate. Armed robberies and mob violence (or mob justice as it is sometimes called) are especially on the rise. All of these factors together will be key determinant of what will happen as China continues to exert her influence in Liberia.

In summary, after successive Liberian governments have danced in a seesaw fashion between China and Taiwan, Liberia has today exerted even more crucial Liberia-China relations. China has certainly emerged as a contender in global economic trend. China is also viewed as a serious threat to the West. America too is clearly concerned. Liberians must heed the lessons learned. History has shown that whenever a rising power, like China, creates fear among its neighbors and other great powers, such as America, that can be a cause of conflict. Applying Newton's third law of motion to global politics, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Consequently, the achievement of a successful foreign policy leadership within the context of the complexities of the 21st Century international environment implies the conscious application of a grand strategy. African leaders – particularly from either politically unstable environments or post-war countries such as Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Rwanda, and Democratic Republic of Congo among others – must avoid relying on foreign aid, importing development and reducing poverty from abroad. Among the key policy level considerations are the following:

The importance of Liberians and their African brethren to inspire and expand the ideas and ideals of a freer society, free thinking and brighter future for their own people; and, The future prosperity of Liberia should take into account the uniqueness of the country in terms of encouraging and rewarding hard work, creativity, innovation, self-reliance, entrepreneurial spirit, and productivity.

Only through thy selfless labor, love for liberty and freedom, and destiny creed, the Liberian people shall truly achieve durable peace, security and prosperity for all. Now is the time to seize the opportunity of building a better future in Liberia. As Liberia celebrates her 161st Independence Anniversary, it would be unwise and naïve for Liberians and others to believe otherwise.

Varney A. Yengbeh, Jr. is President & CEO of The Liberia Institute, an independent public policy think tank associated with and Mr. Yengbeh holds a MA from The Fletcher School, and a M.Sc. from the University of Massachusetts Lowell.

Source: Varney A. Yengbeh, Jr. Story from Modern Ghana News:

Published: Thursday, July 31, 2008

All trademarks and copyrights on this page are owned by their respective owners.




At 9:53 AM, Blogger bathmate said...

Excellent posting...I appreciate this page....
nice posting for this to see this kind of pages


At 5:55 PM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

ninest123 10.20
tiffany jewelry, michael kors outlet, louis vuitton, ray ban sunglasses, nike outlet, nike air max, oakley sunglasses, michael kors, kate spade, gucci handbags, louis vuitton outlet, tory burch outlet, cheap jordans, uggs on sale, louis vuitton outlet, ralph lauren polo, burberry factory outlet, louboutin shoes, chanel handbags, uggs outlet, nike air max, nike free, michael kors handbags, michael kors outlet online, uggs on sale, longchamp outlet, michael kors outlet store, burberry outlet, longchamp bags, ray ban sunglasses, christian louboutin, longchamp outlet, prada outlet, prada handbags, oakley sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, christian louboutin, uggs outlet, tiffany jewelry, louis vuitton outlet online, cheap oakley sunglasses, replica watches, louis vuitton handbags, louboutin uk, ralph lauren outlet, uggs on sale, michael kors outlet online

At 5:59 PM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

coach outlet, converse, vanessa bruno pas cher, kate spade outlet, true religion outlet, true religion outlet, michael kors, polo lacoste pas cher, mulberry uk, timberland pas cher, abercrombie and fitch, nike tn pas cher, louboutin pas cher, true religion jeans, nike air max uk, longchamp pas cher, north face pas cher, coach outlet store online, nike free, coach purses, vans pas cher, lunette ray ban pas cher, nike air max pas cher, michael kors uk, lunette oakley pas cher, hogan sito ufficiale, nike air force, abercrombie and fitch UK, hollister uk, nike roshe uk, lululemon outlet, michael kors, polo ralph lauren uk, longchamp soldes, burberry pas cher, ralph lauren pas cher, nike free pas cher, nike air max, jordan pas cher, ray ban uk, nike roshe run pas cher, michael kors outlet online, new balance, sac guess pas cher, nike blazer pas cher, true religion outlet, hermes pas cher, coach outlet, north face uk

At 6:02 PM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

polo ralph lauren, hollister, nfl jerseys, lululemon outlet, chi flat iron, vans scarpe, north face outlet, nike roshe run, north face outlet, giuseppe zanotti, converse shoes outlet, mont blanc, abercrombie and fitch, longchamp uk, soccer shoes, timberland boots, asics running shoes, hollister clothing, mcm handbags, hermes handbags, reebok outlet, soccer jerseys, mac cosmetics, new balance shoes, instyler ionic styler, nike air max, iphone cases, celine handbags, insanity workout, ray ban, ghd hair, herve leger, vans outlet, nike air max, softball bats, louboutin, converse, salvatore ferragamo, nike trainers uk, abercrombie, valentino shoes, nike air huarache, bottega veneta, gucci, oakley, p90x workout, wedding dresses, babyliss pro, beats by dre, jimmy choo outlet, replica watches, ray ban sunglasses

At 6:05 PM, Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

hollister, montre pas cher, juicy couture outlet, coach outlet, sac louis vuitton, louis vuitton uk, canada goose pas cher, canada goose jackets, wedding dresses uk, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, louis vuitton, louis vuitton, moncler pas cher, michael kors outlet, moncler, moncler outlet, moncler, lancel, ugg uk, ugg pas cher, pandora uk, supra shoes, replica watches, moncler, links of london uk, moncler uk, moncler, barbour, pandora jewelry, canada goose, sac louis vuitton, pandora charms, michael kors outlet online, pandora jewelry, swarovski jewelry, thomas sabo uk, barbour jackets uk, karen millen uk, toms shoes, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, canada goose outlet, canada goose jackets, juicy couture outlet, canada goose uk, doke & gabbana, canada goose, moncler jackets, swarovski uk, canada goose outlet, michael kors handbags, bottes ugg pas cher

At 7:47 PM, Blogger mmjiaxin said...

mbt shoes outlet
north face outlet
cheap ugg boots
parajumpers outlet
fitflop sale
coach handbags outlet
cheap jordans
louis vuitton bags
air jordan 4
cyber monday deals
rolex watches,rolex,watches for men,watches for women,omega watches,replica watches,rolex watches for sale,rolex replica,rolex watch,cartier watches,rolex submariner,fake rolex,rolex replica watches,replica rolex
michael kors factory store
cheap football shirts
true religion outlet
ugg outlet uk
christian louboutin outlet
thomas sabo outlet
cleveland cavaliers
barbour jackets
prada outlet online

At 1:24 AM, Blogger 柯云 said...

cheap jordan shoes
cheap oakleys
fitflop shoes
ray ban sunglasses uk
nike outlet
louis vuitton purses
gucci belts
nike free 5.0
tory burch flats
michael kors outlet
michael kors outlet clearance
louis vuitton bags
louis vuitton
louboutin femme
coach outlet clearance
true religion outlet
adidas wings
ray ban outlet
jordan retro 4
michael kors outlet
ray bans
hollister jeans
celine outlet
adidas factory outlet
polo outlet
kd 7 shoes
cheap ray ban sunglasses
louis vuitton outlet
ghd flat iron
coach outlet
coach outlet online
ralph lauren outlet
longchamp outlet
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton handbags
coach outlet
fitflop shoes
cheap oakley sunglasses
ray ban sunglasses outlet

At 10:37 PM, Blogger 柯云 said...

air jordan shoes
coach outlet online
copy watches
coach outlet clearance
coach factory outlet
michael kors outlet clearance
adidas wings
christian louboutin shoes
fitflop clearance
kobe 8
oakley sunglasses
louis vuitton outlet stores
toms wedges
discount jordans
true religion outlet
red bottom shoes
jordan concords
pandora charms
toms outlet
ralph lauren outlet
louis vuitton handbags
louis vuitton
polo ralph lauren outlet
rolex watches
marc jacobs outlet
michael kors outlet
coach outlet store online clearances
michael kors handbags
ghd flat iron
louis vuitton handbags
longchamp handbags
coach outlet online
giuseppe zanotti sneakers
hollister shirts
adidas outlet store
michael kors outlet
lebron james shoes 13
jordan retro 8
coach factory outlet

At 5:25 PM, Blogger ninest123 said...

polo ralph lauren outlet, cheap oakley sunglasses, louboutin pas cher, louis vuitton outlet, longchamp, air max, christian louboutin outlet, gucci outlet, louis vuitton, ugg boots, prada outlet, nike outlet, sac longchamp, burberry, air jordan pas cher, louboutin outlet, louis vuitton, michael kors, replica watches, oakley sunglasses, nike air max, louboutin, tiffany and co, uggs on sale, louis vuitton outlet, longchamp outlet, replica watches, longchamp pas cher, louboutin shoes, ugg boots, nike free, prada handbags, oakley sunglasses, longchamp outlet, polo ralph lauren outlet, nike air max, oakley sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, kate spade outlet, chanel handbags, louis vuitton, tiffany jewelry, jordan shoes, nike roshe run, ray ban sunglasses, nike free, oakley sunglasses, ralph lauren pas cher, tory burch outlet

At 5:33 PM, Blogger ninest123 said...

michael kors, nike air max, ray ban pas cher, tn pas cher, michael kors, true religion outlet, timberland, north face, true religion jeans, air force, ray ban uk, nike air max, coach purses, kate spade handbags, michael kors outlet, nike blazer, michael kors, ugg boots, true religion jeans, hermes, vans pas cher, new balance pas cher, oakley pas cher, michael kors outlet, burberry outlet online, ralph lauren uk, north face, abercrombie and fitch, vanessa bruno, hollister pas cher, converse pas cher, sac guess, michael kors, burberry, michael kors outlet, replica handbags, true religion jeans, lacoste pas cher, michael kors outlet, lululemon, nike roshe, hollister, hogan, nike air max, mulberry, coach outlet, nike free run uk, coach outlet, ugg boots, michael kors outlet

At 5:36 PM, Blogger ninest123 said...

canada goose outlet, moncler outlet, supra shoes, replica watches, toms shoes, moncler, thomas sabo, hollister, marc jacobs, swarovski, montre pas cher, moncler, ugg pas cher, louis vuitton, pandora jewelry, canada goose, sac louis vuitton pas cher, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, juicy couture outlet, canada goose, moncler, pandora charms, karen millen, pandora charms, juicy couture outlet, canada goose, bottes ugg, louis vuitton, swarovski crystal, links of london, canada goose, pandora jewelry, moncler, wedding dresses, canada goose outlet, louis vuitton, moncler, doudoune canada goose, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, coach outlet, louis vuitton, moncler, moncler, ugg boots uk, canada goose uk

At 12:12 AM, Blogger Liu Liu said...

In a fiery and bizarre Nike Air Max 2015 Shoes 50-minute news conference Tuesday morning, the Louisiana sheriff investigating the shooting death louboutin outlet of former cheap nfl jerseys NFL player Joe nfl jerseys store McKnight held forth at length about the criticism his department has faced; about race Nike Free Run relations and “black-on-black” crime; and what he called Nike Air Max 90 the shameful behavior of some christian louboutin shoes witnesses and the public. The remarks — nominally focused on a recent arrest in McKnight’s death — swerved passionately and erratically among many topics. Jefferson Parish Sheriff Newell Normand appeared visibly angry as he defended authorities NFL Jerseys from criticism. At one point he described the actions christian louboutin uk of both Nike Roshe Run the suspect and victim as wholesale nfl jerseys “bad behavior.”

At 2:28 AM, Blogger happy 123 said...

Kanye West shoes
nike air force
new england patriots jersey
yeezy boost 350
cheap jordans
led shoes for kids
cheap basketball shoes
adidas yeezy
adidas ultra boost
nike dunks

At 6:57 PM, Blogger raybanoutlet001 said...

broncos jerseys
coach outlet
converse trainers
fitflops sale
mlb jerseys
ugg outlet
dolphins jerseys
hugo boss sale
hermes belts
cheap ugg boots


Post a Comment

<< Home